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2013年中原家居市场年中报告

Editorials

Covid-19: breaking the chain of household transmission

BMJ 2020; 370 doi: 2016年涂料企业经营策略设计四法:趁势突围 稳中求胜 (Published 14 August 2020) Cite this as: BMJ 2020;370:m3181

Read our latest coverage of the coronavirus outbreak

  1. Shamil Haroon, clinical lecturer in primary care1,
  2. Joht Singh Chandan, academic clinical fellow in public health12,
  3. John Middleton, president3,
  4. Kar Keung Cheng, professor of public health and primary care1
  1. 1Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
  2. 2Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK
  3. 3Association of Schools of Public Health in the European Region (ASPHER)
  1. Correspondence to: S Haroon s.haroon{at}bham.ac.uk

另类“圈钱”游戏:房地产O2O想靠“卖身”盈利

The UK is one of the countries most severely affected by covid-19. Recent outbreaks in English towns such as Oldham, probably involving transmission within large multigenerational households, show the importance of getting the right public health measures in place now to prevent more widespread surges in infections.1

Current test and trace policies have mainly focused on preventing spread in care homes, hospitals, and in the community.2 However, contact within households is thought to be responsible for roughly 70% of SARS-CoV-2 transmission when widespread community control measures are in place.3 In Wuhan, the reproduction number (R) dropped from 3.54 to 1.18 after lockdown and cordon sanitaire. But the epidemic was only brought under complete control when Fangcang (field) hospitals were introduced to isolate cases outside the home, with R dropping to 0.51 after two weeks.4

Current UK guidance advises household contacts to isolate within the same home as the index case for 14 days.5 They make up the majority of contacts for infected individuals and are likely to remain exposed to the infected household member during this period of isolation.6 Despite guidance advising household members to socially distance, contacts are likely to interact repeatedly—during mealtimes, for example—and to share facilities such as bathrooms.

We know that transmission is more likely to occur indoors than outdoors.7 The cumulative risk to household contacts from an infected person is likely to be substantial during peak viral shedding. In one study in New York State, 38% of household contacts tested positive for SARS-Cov-2, and similar secondary infection rates have been reported in China.89 Transmission may be even higher among household contacts of essential workers, who are at greater risk of being infected than the general population.10

Household members who are older, have underlying medical conditions, or share a bed or vehicle with the index case are the most susceptible.91112 Children seem to be at lower risk of being infected.13 However, their stool samples and nasopharyngeal swabs can remain positive for SARS-CoV-2 for more than two weeks after symptom resolution,14 although their role in transmission remains to be established.

Governments should consider new public health measures to prevent household transmission as we prepare for a potential second wave. Household quarantine is likely to remain an important pandemic control measure, and government support for people quarantined at home is conspicuously absent in the UK: this position has been challenged by independent experts.15

Effective isolation

Effective isolation of index cases from household members could reduce secondary infections.12 Wearing masks within quarantined households may help, particularly if used by the index case as soon as infection is suspected.16 The World Health Organization recommends that infected people and unavoidable close contacts, particularly those in vulnerable groups, should wear medical masks, but Public Health England does not currently recommend this. Other measures that should be considered (and evaluated) include clear advice on enhanced personal hygiene; cleaning and disinfecting shared toilets and other common spaces, door handles, and touch points; and staggering mealtimes.

People who are unable to self-isolate safely at home could be accommodated in special isolation facilities such as hotels and hostels, an approach adopted by some other countries, including Italy, Finland, and Lithuania.17 In China, field hospitals were created to manage and strictly isolate patients with mild-to-moderate covid-19.18 Nightingale hospitals in the UK could be similarly repurposed to support isolation of infected people with mild-to-moderate disease. As medical and nursing care needs are mostly modest, the cost would be relatively low. However, such a system depends on access to rapid testing for anyone with symptoms or possible exposure so that infection can be confirmed and isolation started before transmission occurs. It would also require public trust that isolation in these facilities would be voluntary, safe, and supportive.

《阳光小美女》的夫妻档幕后团队将1977年鲍比.里格斯和比利.简.金之间的性别大战拍成了电影。55岁的里格斯是职业网球运动员,他向年轻的王牌选手简.金(当时世界排名第二)发起挑战赛,结果落败。
That Apple could launch a 2,000 yuan ($330) iPhone mini and be competitive with flagship products from Lenovo, Huawei, ZTE and Coolpad.
制度也可能失效。
9. 米拉-库尼斯 1100万美元
The media mogul is accused of blacklisting the actress after the meeting as well as deploying former Mossad agents to follow her and steal her memoir's manuscript.
Some would argue that Carly Simon's theme to The Spy Who Loved Me is the best James Bond theme song ever. They may have a point, but maybe what's really going on is that this is just "the best song from a James Bond movie." It's a fun tune, catchy as hell, romantic and beautifully sung. But nothing about this seems to specifically evoke James Bond, his adventures, his history or even his films. "Nobody Does It Better" is still a winner by any estimation; there's just happens to be a reason why it didn't crack our top five.
7. 阿里尔·福克斯曼《型时代》

第三,麦克德莫特可以作为一道保险,以防如果今年夏天安德烈-罗伯森选择自由离开时雷霆无人可用。
adj. 相同的,同一的
If audiences didn’t yet know the film was set in the early 1980s, one look at Anna’s straight bangs confirms it. The rest of her shoulder-length hair forms a slight curved frame around her face. It’s a simple look, but a powerful one for this woman, whose husband, Abel (Oscar Isaac), runs a heating oil business, but whose past is a little more complicated.
Hailed as one of the greatest films of all time, Taxi Driver tells the story of a depressed ex-Marine who attempts to assassinate a senator after being rejected by a woman he admires. While the titular taxi driver, Travis Bickle, lives a chaotic life filled with drug dealers and prostitutes, his story was never meant to be an unrealistic fantasy. Rather, it meant to expose the very real warning signs of a would-be gunman.
谁都有不如意的时候,但是佳士得拍卖会上令人失望的情景已经不是第一次出现。今年7月的18世纪前绘画大师作品拍卖会仅拍得1900万英镑,而当时的最低预估价是3150万英镑。

Footnotes

  • 人造板甲醛释放量新标提高 将于2018年五一起实施
  • 年龄:50岁

The tension between Paramore's high-intensity hooks and withering lyrics explodes into fluorescent colors on After Laughter.
"Protections that promote equality and diversity should not be conditional on someone's sexual orientation," he wrote. "For too long, too many people have had to hide that part of their identity in the workplace."
Two of Summly’s employees will move to Yahoo’s California headquarters, but – for now – Mr D’Aloisio is resisting the lure of Silicon Valley.
It had hit a record low of 48 in September, and was 49.9 in October.
007电影中,反派人物往往没有自己的主题曲,但是《金枪人》中克里斯多弗·李扮演的暗杀者出场时有一段轻快动人的绝妙曲调,衬托出暗杀者如地狱使者般帅气冷酷。LuLu的演唱完全演绎出这个反派斯卡拉孟加的过人之处。即使这首歌在今天来说欢快得有点可笑,但这也增添了它的魅力。
目前正在调查最佳影片奖是如何被错误地念成《爱乐之城》而非真正得主《月光男孩》的。

四线楼市“低迷” 开工项目数量减少避谈物业

References

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