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Psychosocial Environment

Common Stressors

Stress, much like beauty, is in the eye of the beholder. What is stressful for one person may not be for another. However, there are some events and environments which typically cause stress:1

  • Changes to family: marriage, pregnancy, death, divorce, a new child
  • Work environment: job change, job loss, promotion, work overload, conflict at work, business failure, employee strike
  • Living environment: new house, relocation to a new community, loss of a home, neighborhood crime
  • Physical environment or conditions: noise, pollution, traffic, violence, illness, disability, injury, pain, cold, heat, lack of sleep, hunger, malnutrition, natural disaster, unsafe surroundings, physical abuse or neglect
  • Economic environment: poverty, escalating bills, unanticipated expenses, theft
  • Social environment: isolation, family or peer demands, forced separation (such as from military service, prison, abandonment or conflict), grief, emotional abuse or neglect, legal entanglements, bullying, difficult roommates or neighbors

Before long, Russell fell in love with inmate named Phillip Morris. After Morris was released, Russell again escaped prison by calling the clerk's office, impersonating a judge and drastically reducing his own bail. He was caught and escaped two more times to be with Morris, at one point faking his own death. He is now serving a life sentence but admits to finding his film portrayal pretty exciting.

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007系列电影主题曲第六名:杜兰·杜兰--《雷霆杀机》
抵达太阳系深处的人类智慧。
n. 姿势,态度,情形

This Noah Baumbach Netflix film is both funny and award-worthy, which means you can feel really smart while you chuckle.
commission
Big-spending US firms are forcing their UK counterparts to increase salaries right the way from newly qualifieds to the top rainmakers — though that did not stop David Higgins, private equity star at Freshfields, from decamping to Kirkland & Ellis just before Christmas. Boutique specialists are luring clients away by offering faster, more focused services.

Our psychosocial environment includes our responses to stressors in our lives, from temporary ones such as a traffic jam to major stressors such as war, homelessness or major disease. Our relationships with family members, friends, colleagues and other individuals and groups with whom we interact in our communities are an important part of this environment. These can impact our capacity to deal with stressors. Nurturing, supportive relationships allow us to better access all our innate resources to respond to stress in positive ways.2

family support

 

贵州首家全宅智能家居体验中心 智能化装修设计

当你在求职布告栏比如Monster或者Indeed发布你的简历时,你现在的雇主是可有机会看到你的简历的。Foss说很多人事和经理经常在求职栏搜索职工的名字看他们是不是在找工作。
自2004年抵达土星以来,卡西尼号宇宙飞船已经将土星、土星环及土星卫星的图片传送回地球。卡西尼号于9月完成使命,按计划撞向土星大气层中焚毁。卡西尼号在研究土星的同时,还探索了可能存在外星生命的土卫六和土卫二。它使人们更加深入地了解了太阳系,这种影响还将持续,科学家将继续对它收集的数据进行分析。
单词discourse 联想记忆:

Stress and the Body's Response

Our bodies, families, communities and lives are embedded in a complex network of systems. The degree of support in the environment can shape a person’s resilience. Likewise, an environment that is stressful can foster disease. The conditions of a person’s social and psychological environment—those in which they are born, grow, live, work and age—are known as the social determinants of health. These conditions are shaped by the distribution of money, power and resources at global, national and local levels.3

Risks for Stress: Riskscapes

A riskscape, or landscape of risks, captures the overlapping threats to health occurring in a physical location that increase risk for disease.4 An example of overlapping risks can be seen in impoverished neighborhoods,5 which often experience many of the stressors listed above simultaneously. We discuss poverty in more detail on our Socioeconomic Environment page.

Minority status, age and gender further interact to increase risk for disease.6 Individuals experience additional adversity when they live amid wealth and affluence but do not share those resources.7

产品看起来并不太像一个鼻子,而是一个瓶子,装满了培养细菌的营养液体。但是给这个“鼻子”一个血液样本,让它嗅上一段时间,这个瓶子的斑点会改变颜色来表示它鉴别出的细菌种类。
When he was offered the role of "Will" on Fresh Prince, he had 70% of his wages garnished for the first three seasons. After three years, he was able to take home his full salary. Basically, the first line of the theme song could have been written about Will Smith's real life: "This is a story all about how/My life got flip-turned upside down." Except in real life, the "guys making trouble in his neighborhood" was the IRS.
像中国人口这么多的国家,关于寂寞的病毒式模仿会这么流行实在是件很讽刺的事情。这句看上去很无厘头的话被用在了所有可能搭配的排列中,用在了所有场合,比如,“哥看的不是书,是寂寞。”

Stressful Environments and the Social Ecological Model of Health

The rise of chronic disease is a complex and growing problem for public health in the US.8 Stress, particularly exposure to long-term chronic stress, is associated with the majority of chronic health conditions.9

Social Ecological Model of Health

The Social Ecological Model of Health Promotion (SEM) describes how our psychosocial experiences are nested inside layers that influence health and well-being:10

  • individual
  • interpersonal (familial)
  • communal (neighborhood)
  • societal

The Human Stress Response System

This response system is evolutionarily old and has been shaped by the environmental experiences of thousands of preceding generations. Through millennia of adverse environmental challenges, adaptations and collective evolution, humans have developed a sophisticated stress response system.11

The physical stress response is a complex network of coordinated physical and behavioral activations from the endocrine and nervous systems:12

When a threat is perceived, the hypothalamus activates the sympathetic nervous system (the "fight or flight" response) by sending signals through the autonomic nerves to the adrenal glands. The adrenal glands pump the hormone epinephrine—also known as adrenaline—into the bloodstream, causing several physiological changes:13
  • 本田的幸运之处在于,它在美国的客户对其拥有深厚的好感和忠诚度,还因为优质低价的极高性价比受到第三方评测机构的好评。不过,因安全气囊爆开后碎片四溅伤及乘客这一产品缺陷导致的争议,在一定程度上削弱了这个客户基础。
  • 8月京涨价楼盘量创新高 高性价比项目抢占市场
  • [.ent?'teinm?nt]
  • 百年建筑被“污染”上海外滩百年建筑被违规喷漆
  • 长租公寓装配规范正在制定 将于明年上半年实行
  • Makers of processed food, soda and fast food see markets in the developing world as their greatest growth opportunities. At the same time, obesity rates and weight-related illnesses are on the rise in developing countries. An ongoing series of articles examined the interaction of these two trends, starting with cases in Brazil, Ghana and Colombia. Taken together, these stories reveal “a new global food order, and a new health crisis.”
    黄金市场可能会对美元以及美国加息的前景着迷。但还有一个因素正在逼近:金矿供应下降。

When the initial surge of epinephrine subsides, the hypothalamus activates the 智能家居领域的三种生存模式, signaling the release of cortisol to keep the sympathetic nervous system engaged.

When the threat passes, the parasympathetic nervous system (the "rest and digest" function) calms the body and returns it to a pre-threat state.

PsychosocialHPA

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The SEM is particularly useful in allowing researchers to study stressors from the micro scale (cellular) to the macro scale (social policy), positioning their work in the larger social ecological context.14 Layers are labeled with their corresponding social determinants of health.

PsychosocialSEMModelLWalker

父子合谋转移售房款八百万元 逃避执行终被拘被罚

Policies that affect economic and social determinants (top level) can decrease access to income and education, and have powerful effects on neighborhood stressors.15

These policies shape disparities in local environments (second level)16 such as poverty, pollution, crime rates and political power.

Daily opportunities (third level) create or suppress nurturing environments and govern the frequency and intensity of daily hassles (discrimination and microaggressions).17

These layers affect our daily behaviors and patterns (fourth level) and daily interactions.

As these pressures funnel down from the political to the community to the individual, they become observational cues (fifth level) that the environment is threatening, unpredictable or uncontrollable and thus stressful.18

Upon activation, the brain sends signals to the body to mount a stress response.19

stressed child

人民日报刊文:持续推进供给侧结构性改革

Allostasis: The Body’s Stress Response

When the brain interprets a threat, it sends a cascading signal through the body that causes a stress response, known casually as "fight or flight" and more formally as an allostatic response.20 See The Human Stress Response System at right for more detail.

In healthy doses and supportive environments, this response is tempered and can foster learning.21 In adversarial environments the allostatic response can manifest as chest pain, heart palpitations, headaches, dysphagia (difficulty swallowing), intestinal cramping, anxiety, panic, immobility, frustration, muscle tension and inflammation.22

These reactions can be exhausting and imprint a strong memory of fear on the brain.23 Fortunately, a feedback system in the brain is capable of stopping the stress response. 24 Terminating the stress response and restoring the body to pre-stress response states is important to protecting the body’s long-term health.25

Programming the Stress Response

When early-life experiences signal that the environment is unpredictable, threatening or uncontrollable, the stress response system may be reprogrammed, becoming blunted,26 or may be programmed to be sensitized and thus more responsive.

Responsivity is informed by the number of steroid receptors available during stress termination.27 The feedback system in the brain—cells in the hippocampus—have glucocorticoid receptors that, once filled, signal the termination of the stress response. When there are fewer glucocorticoid receptors in these cells, it takes a higher circulating quantity of cortisol to terminate the stress response.

The number of receptors available in the feedback system is dependent on how many proteins are produced in that cell. This is determined by the availability of the receptor gene to be transcribed into proteins. Stress signals, such as cortisol, circulating in maternal blood during pregnancy, can epigenetically alter the glucocorticoid receptor gene to be permanently downregulated, causing fewer receptor proteins to be produced.28

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How our bodies respond to stress varies across the population,29 determined by genetic predisposition30 and previous experiences including exposure to maternal stress signals before birth31 The typical responsivity can be modified by genetic predisposition32 but is generally neither amplified nor repressed.33 This neutral programming is optimal in moderately stressful environment where life is not overly threatening nor consistently safe. Over an individual’s life, neutral programming is optimal in balancing the risk for internal burnout from repetitive stress burden and survival in adverse environments long enough to maximize periods for mating and parenting.34

Chronic Stress and Disease: Weathering

With repeated exposure to stressors, the HPA axis activation is sustained, and stress signals continue to flood the body. This sustained activation delays the onset of restorative repair and pushes the body into pre-disease states.35 Chronic stress acts on the cardiovascular, metabolic, neuroendocrine and immune systems:36

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  • AT&T (T, Fortune 500) approved a stock repurchase of up to 300 million shares worth about $10.5 billion in March. The buyback is the fourth initiative announced over the past three years. Since 2012, when the company started its stock buybacks, it has repurchased 775 million of its shares.
    [slu:]
    Gongloff piles on the bad news about 2014: GDP 'grew at a 1.8% annualized pace in the first quarter ... revising down its earlier estimate of 2.4% growth ... The first quarter's dismal growth was at least better than the 0.4% GDP growth of the fourth quarter of 2012. But it was still far from healthy, and economists don't see it getting much stronger any time soon.' And that's real bad news for the markets going into 2014.
    美国电影学会年度电影奖
    在10月份的第三场总统大选辩论中,两位总统候选人没教养地拒绝与对方握手问好或道别。

Over time, stress deteriorates health and resilience. This process is referred to as weathering.37 Just as a flag that weathers many storms begins to fray, so too does the body when it experiences harsh environments of social inequity.38 The health outcomes are mental illness, chronic disease morbidity and premature death.39 In short, stress causes physical changes that impact our health and functioning.

The frequency, duration, intensity, source, target and proximity of stressors influence the extent of the stress response. The duration of response can increase an individual’s risk for physical and mental burnout. Stressors that are higher intensity or longer duration carry a high internal burden (allostatic load).40 Over time this internal pressure forces body systems to adapt in ways that foster pre-disease states.41

In weathering, each body system adapts to this internal pressure through secondary changes:42

Dysregulation in these areas  can cause these secondary changes.43   With chronic stress, such changes increase the risk for these conditions:44
  • Cardiopulmonary system
  • Metabolism
  • Mental functioning
  • Autoimmune response
  • Aging
  • Increased startle response
  • Anxiety and vigilance
  • 长沙市税务局:二套房契税政策界定范围为全市
  • Glucose sensitivity
  • Immune suppression
  • 钱不够办消费贷充首付 购房者怕违规退定遭拒

Stress-induced Gene Expression

Physiologic shifts following stressful exposures occur in large part through hormone-activated gene expression.45 When cortisol is released by the adrenal glands into the blood stream, it targets glucocorticoid responsive genes in tissues distributed throughout the body,46 including the central nervous system, metabolism, immune, cardiovascular, endocrine and renal systems.47

Within each cell nucleus, the steroid hormone binds with its receptor, and this complex binds to a stretch of DNA called a hormone response element.48 This binding activates gene expression to shift the physiologic activity of the target cell. In this way, stressful experiences, mediated through the allostatic response, have an epigenetic effect on the body.

See our Gene-Environment Interaction page for further explanation.

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Through this process, chronic stress responses cause weathering on the body, eroding health status.49 As years turn into decades, the physiologic changes (such as hypertension, metabolic disorder or anxiety) may become irreversible, often increasing co-morbidities, potentially increasing maladaptive coping mechanisms (such as social aversion, drug and alcohol dependence) and decreasing life expectancy.50

Through these mechanisms social structures can get under the skin, alter our bodies and cause disease. The loss of productivity and financial burden of systemic disease further erodes family and community resilience, especially when the chronic stress starts in childhood.51

Disadvantaged Populations

Lower social classes experience longer durations of chronic stress, such as lengthy unemployment or institutionalized discrimination. Those with less power experience barriers to achievement of life goals, such as high costs of educational programs or lack of childcare options, inadequate recognition and rewards for personal qualification (such as gender pay differences) or for invested effort in the workplace. In the US and other White-majority countries, minorities and women in these environments are exposed to more chronic stressors than their White male counterparts due to differential expectations resulting in role strain and interpersonal conflict.52

Both the sources and frequency of stressors are not distributed equally in society, with heavier burdens borne by those with less advantage.53 These systems of inequity create differences in health outcomes, known as health disparities.54

Stressful Environments and the Developing Child

Stress Effects on Brain Development

该项调研还显示,会计与金融专业的毕业生也将走俏。那些已在为明年夏天毕业后的生路做打算的学生们需要谨记:上述调研中,有52%的受访雇主表示,他们更愿意雇佣有实习经验的毕业生。
Celebritites always seem to have a better life than the rest of us;nicer house,cooler cars and even cuter children.Just look at these pictures of Shiloh Jolie-
n. 基金;资金,现金(fund的复数) v. 提供资金
Miranda Lambert “Bathroom Sink” (RCA Nashville)
的确,价格不是一切。但即使是看空者也同意:一切都有价格。
2014年至2016年期间,虽然全球增长数据不错,但全球温室气体排放量持平,所有人都为此欢欣鼓舞。问题是,其原因并非是所有人庆祝的全球经济效率提升,而仅仅是中国北方的经济增长放缓。随着这部分地区在2017年恢复了经济增长势头,二氧化碳排放量开始再次上升。
Actor in a Mini-Series or Movie: Courtney B. Vance, “The People v. O. J. Simpson: American Crime Story”

These exposures increased amygdala function, which enhances fear, anxiety, and emotional dysfunction, while it decreased prefrontal cortex function, which participates in regulating and terminating the stress response.55

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Our stress system responds to environmental conditions even before birth56 and is especially sensitive early in development.57 Glucocorticoid receptors are found in most fetal tissue and in the placenta, suggesting they are capable of responding to high maternal cortisol. Early-life experiences shape our stress response and therefore the impact stress has on our health over the life course.

A person’s individual responsiveness to stress signals can shape brain development.58 Highly responsive individuals demonstrate better learning and health outcomes in supportive environments and worse health outcomes in high adversity environments.59 Supportive environments foster better mental and social learning, increase memory and improve decision-making; in such environments, children have adequate time for stress response termination and are generally characterized by openness to information.

In negative environments, however, high responsivity magnifies the body’s response to intense or chronic stressors, increasing the risk for weathering over the life span. Highly responsive individuals can become hypersensitive to social feedback and psychological manipulation, both capable of detracting individuals from achieving goals.60 This increases the risk for future stressful experiences, further increasing the risk for weathering.

cycle of stress and performance

Stress responsivity shapes the intensity of weathering and has implications for later adult health outcomes.61 Responsivity biased toward either under- or over-reactivity can predispose children to adult disease.62 For example, overexposure to maternal stress hormones before birth can restrict birth weight and predispose the developing child to hypertension later in life.63 Effects of parental stress, such as reduced opportunities for bonding and distant parent-child relationships, significantly increase the risk up to fourfold for a child to experience anxiety, depression, diabetes and heart disease as an adult.64 Higher prenatal glucocorticoid exposure is directly associated with higher circulating glucocorticoids in adulthood, and both are associated with increased hypertension and hyperglycemia and changes in adult behaviors.65

Investigating Brain Changes

We rely heavily on animal models to understand early-life stress programming because sampling a core of living human brain is not an option. However, we do have direct human associations: the brains of suicide completers show epigenetic changes in the glucocorticoid receptor gene66 as well as methylation changes in other important genes that inform the intensity of the stress response.67

Newborns of mothers with depressive symptoms during pregnancy also demonstrated increased methylation of the GR gene in umbilical cord blood cells. As three-month-old infants, these children had higher levels of salivary cortisol.68

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Brain Changes

With exposure to chronic stress, the brain changes shape, reducing connections that support nuanced cognitive function, self-regulation and memory; this process is less reversible as a child ages. Through these changes, chronic stress increases the likelihood of aggression, vigilance and anxiety.69 Because an individual suffering from these changes and conditions is handicapped in becoming a nurturing parent (although many people do overcome adversity and become terrific parents), the effects of stress can be self-perpetuating down generations. Through stress biasing, the social determinants can become multigenerational stimulants of chronic disease.70

To the individual, there is a cost for high responsivity. Early life stressors that reshape the brain affect hippocampal and amygdala development that can affect a child’s transition into adolescence. Chronic early stress impacting social learning may predispose teens to depression and substance abuse, both feeding into adult chronic diseases.71 This is a vicious cycle of early childhood adversity. The stress that parents experience can have direct influences on a child’s biological capacity in responding to future stressful situations.72 The parent-child relationship, in utero and through development, provides experiential information that programs stress responsivity.

Telomere Changes

Telomeres are structures on the ends of chromosomes that protect and stabilize chromosomes. They are essential for avoiding cellular dysfunction. Telomere length is reduced with age, smoking and stress, and shorter telomeres can impair health.73

Telomere length in specific blood cells is viewed as a biomarker for cellular aging that is closely associated with age-related and chronic diseases.74 This biomarker may reflect population-level weathering in communities. For example, a study of nine-year-old boys found that adverse environments shaped by low income, low maternal education, unstable family structure and harsh parenting were associated with a 19 percent shortening of white blood cell telomeres as compared to a cohort in more nurturing environments. These boys physically aged faster than their chronical age would suggest. Children with the most sensitivity (highest responsivity) to stress showed the longest telomeres in advantaged environments and the shortest in disadvantaged environments.75

Resilience

Resilience, the capacity to recover quickly from difficulties, is a characteristic of both individuals and communities. Parental bonding is a resilience factor, protecting children from the adverse effects of poverty on emotional and cognitive development.76

Community resilience is difficult to define and measure; the US Department of Health & Human Services defines it as "the ability of a community to use its assets to strengthen public health and healthcare systems and to improve the community’s physical, behavioral, and social health to withstand, adapt to, and recover from adversity".77   A resilient community is one that is socially connected, takes collective action, and has access to necessary resources.

Substantial risks to community health and well-being lie within community adversities such as climate change, urbanization and disparities. In the context of a natural or manmade disaster, increasing community resilience includes better preparedness and disaster planning, promoting community systems, and reducing threats to health. These are some steps communities and public health can take to build resilience:78

  • 不过,黄金比萨早就不是第一种加入了黄金的食物。“马尼拉社交俱乐部”是纽约威廉斯堡一家菲律宾餐厅,今年早些时候,餐厅老板Bj?rn DelaCruz制作了一款昂贵的黄金水晶宇部甜甜圈。
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    Victoria's Secret angel Candice Swanepoel comes 4th amongst 10 most beautiful women of 2015. This South African beauty came in 10th on the Forbes top-earning models list last year. She was voted No. 61 in 2010, No. 62 in 2011, and No. 75 in 2013 in FHM's annual “100 Sexiest Women in the World” poll and No. 1 in 2014 Maxim's "Hot 100 List".
  • 习近平:做实体经济要实实在在、心无旁骛做主业
  • Build social connectedness

Interactions between Chronic Psychosocial Stress and Environmental Toxicants

Research shows impacts of combined stress and toxicants:79

  • 国务院总理李克强在上周五由人力资源和社会保障部组织的一次会议上表示,要优先促进就业。
    The 500 brands come from 28 different countries, among which nearly half, 227, are from the US.
  • A few years back, a flying bicycle called the "Paravelo" was invented. And it isn't called a flying bicycle for fun. It is a bicycle (with a large parachute on top) that actually flies. It travels around 25 kilometers per hour (15 mph) on land and 40 kilometers per hour (25 mph) in the air. It can also fly up to a height of 1,200 meters (4,000 ft). The best part? You don't need a pilot's license. The Paravelo has been called the world's first flying bicycle, a title we must point out it does not really own.
    这些排行榜是基于某个特定学科的研究能力而做出评价,与综合榜单评价方式不同。
  • 5. Gay Marriage
    11月,财新-Markit制造业采购经理人指数(PMI)从10月的51%降至50.8%,接近区分扩张和收缩的50%大关。此前,路透社(Reuters)对经济学家进行调查得出的预测中值曾预计,制造业PMI将降至50.9%。
  • facile(adj 易做到的;不花力气的;性格温和的)face,le乐:想让脸乐还不容易吗?Fac=face,ilit,ate吃:用脸吃饭还不容易吗?
    《大汉情缘之云中歌》改编自桐华网络小说《云中歌》。它以西汉时期(公元前206年-公元220年)为背景,讲诉了名为云歌的女子、贵族公子孟珏和汉昭帝刘弗陵之间的传奇爱情。该剧和《琅琊榜》同月播出,风头却几乎被《琅琊榜》完全盖过。它也因历史漏洞广受诟病。对某些观众而言,杨颖的颜值恐怕是该剧吸引他们的唯一亮点。
    “这是真的“我必须去做这件事”的时刻了,”他说。
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  • Research in Southern California children found that living in a high-stress home is associated with more susceptibility to the negative effects of air pollution on the lungs.80  
  • In a study of children from birth to age seven, children who experienced high levels of air pollution in utero had lower IQ scores than those not exposed, but only when their mothers experienced material hardship.81

Selected Sources of Stress and Impacts on Health

Psychosocial risk factors for disease include family conflict, neighborhood violence, work stress and social discrimination; these factors can hinder mental and physical health.82

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Global Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Globally, most data available is on intimate partner violence and sexual assault against women. An estimated 35 percent of women worldwide have experienced intimate partner violence over their lifetimes. Violence rates range from 71 percent of all women in Ethiopia to 15 percent of all women in Japan. Worldwide, up to 38 percent of all murders of women are committed by their partners.83

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence: United States

Domestic violence includes violence from spouses, partners, parents, children, siblings or relatives. Three-quarters of incidents occur against women.84 In fact, it is estimated that a US woman is assaulted or beaten every nine seconds.85

Types of Domestic Violence.86

  • Rape
  • Sexual assault
  • Robbery
  • Intimate partner assault

Most violence occurs around the home (77 percent),87 and 19 percent of all violent incidents include the use of a weapon.88

The 外地夫妻为在上海买房决定假离婚 妻子嫁给中介 shows that between 2003 and 2012, domestic violence accounted for 21 percent of all violent victimizations in the US, with 70 percent of those from intimate partner violence (IPV).89

graph of violent relationships

data from Truman and Morgan90

Preventing Violence in Relationships

Research in high-income areas indicates school-based programs can help prevent relationship violence among young people.91

Costs. Intimate partner violence accounted for $4 billion annually in 1995 in health care services and an additional $900 million in lost productivity.92 When these amounts are updated to 2003 figures, $8.3 billion in annual expenses are estimated, a combination of higher medical costs ($5.8 billion) and lost productivity ($2.5 billion).93

Health outcomes of intimate partner violence. In addition to death and injury (bruising, flesh wounds, fractures, brain injury and headaches), the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, immune, and endocrine systems are impacted from violence-induced stress, as discussed above.

Health Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence94

Health conditions 

Asthma

Infections

Circulatory conditions

Cardiovascular disease

Fibromyalgia

Irritable bowel syndrome

Chronic pain

建材电商化开辟崭新市场 服务问题制造阻碍

Gastrointestinal disorders

Joint disease

Migraines

Headaches 

Reproductive conditions

Gynecological disorders

Pelvic inflammatory disease

Sexual dysfunction

“互联网+”搅动房产中介业 佣金价格战全面打响

Delayed prenatal care
Preterm delivery

Low birth weight babies

Perinatal deaths

Unintended pregnancies

Psychological conditions

Anxiety

Depression

PTSD

Antisocial behavior

Suicidal behavior in females

Low self-esteem

Inability to trust

Fear of intimacy

Emotional detachment

Sleep disturbances

Flashbacks

Social impacts

Restricted access to services

北京市住建委:继续加强房地产市场调控 将个体住房租金纳入监管

Isolation from social networks

Homelessness

Health behaviors

High-risk sexual behaviors

Harmful substance abuse

郑州等20个城市开启限购模式 限购后房价会降吗

Overuse of health services

Child Abuse and Neglect

The CDC provides some 2014 facts on child maltreatment (either abuse or neglect) in the US:95

  • A Method to the Madness
  • The actress who kick-started the exposure of Hollywood moguls who allegedly exploited positions of power to abuse women has branded #MeToo campaigners against sex attackers 'losers'.
  • 广州一手楼4月份网签量仍过万 均价16635元/平

The CDC estimates total lifetime costs of child maltreatment at $124 billion annually.:96

Youth Violence

Any violence—including being a victim, offender or witness—in early childhood extending into young adulthood is considered youth violence. The US CDC provides some important US statistics to consider:97

  • Meanwhile, in recent months mainland investors have been rapidly owning equity trading accounts and putting money into the stock market. The Shanghai Composite has become the region's best performing index, rising nearly 45 per cent year to date.
  • In 2012, an average of 13 people ages 10 to 24 were victims of homicide and 1642 more were treated in emergency departments each day.
  • 公牛队当家球星罗斯的这两张照片就跟在照镜子一样,可能是因为照片中的罗斯还处于2006年的高中时代,也不过是六年前。
    通常在垃圾桶里东西是没有价值的,不需要任何检查,但Qube试图用“世界上第一个智能垃圾桶”来改变这一现状。Qube声称可以帮助你监控你的垃圾,帮助你利用创新技术回收垃圾。
    You`d love to know the balance of forces that shape and move your ponytail, right? That`s why Joseph Keller, Raymond Goldstein, Patrick Warren and Robin Ball received this igNOMINIOUS prize!
  • 《一名拍摄黑手党的西西里摄影师和她的“鲜血档案”》(A Sicilian Photographer of the Mafia and Her ‘Archive of Blood’)

Inspire strategies

World Health Organization with CDC and other global partners created INSPIRE, a technical package of seven evidence-based strategies to end violence against children. Click to open the Inspire infographic from the WHO website.

Risk factors for youth violence:98

  • A history of violence
  • Substance abuse
  • Delinquent behaviors
  • Poor family functioning
  • Poor grades in school
  • Community poverty

Adverse Childhood Experiences

PsychosocialCDCACEpyramid

graphic from the CDC;99 click to zoom

Adverse childhood experiences—ACEs—were first identified in the late 1990s. The risk for violence, victimization, and disease outcomes are heavily impacted by early childhood experiences. As shown at right, adverse childhood experiences can set children on an arduous path that increases risk for poor health behaviors, disease, disability, social problems and early death outcomes.100

  • Goldie Hawn’s award for best supporting actress in the 1970 film Cactus Flower rests somewhere altogether more zen – in the “India Room” in which she likes to meditate. Hers isn’t the only award to apparently emit good vibes – Russell Crowe’s award for best actor, which he won for his role as the bang-on-trend, leather miniskirt clad Maximus Decimus Meridius in Ridley Scott’s 2000 film Gladiator, is kept in a chicken coop on the actor’s Australian ranch. Crowe apparently thinks it helps the hens lay bigger eggs.
  • 总理说让“互联网+”推动传统产业升级 LED产业如何抓住机遇?
  • Song “The China Style”(Jiuyue Qiji)

Examples of Adverse Childhood Experiences

Abuse

  • Emotional
  • Physical
  • Sexual

Household challenges

  • 人造板新国标能否化解板式家具环保危机
  • Household substance abuse
  • 北京海淀等九个城区陆续发布暴雨预警
  • Parental separation or divorce
  • Criminal household member

Neglect

  • Emotional
  • Physical

佛山建筑陶瓷屡遭仿冒 山寨多难以取证

  • Alcoholism / alcohol abuse
  • 深圳7月起禁用油漆能否引发全国各地响应?
  • Depression
  • Fetal death
  • Illicit drug use
  • Ischemic heart disease
  • Liver disease
  • Financial stress
  • 赵海山:天津自贸区将突出服务京津冀协同和实体经济
  • Sexually transmitted diseases
  • Suicide attempts
  • Smoking
  • Adolescent pregnancy
  • Risk for sexual violence
  • Poor academic achievement

Neighborhood Violence

Living in a neighborhood that experiences high levels of violence can have a devastating impact on people’s long-term mental and physical health.  People who live in neighborhoods with high rates of violence suffer from trauma-related illnesses such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), at higher rates.101

child memorial in a poor neighborhood

但是,当《老友记》第二季浓墨重彩地展现卡罗尔和苏珊的同性恋婚礼时,这个剧集就朝着人人平等的方向迈出了一大步。幕后,执行制片人玛塔·考夫曼说:"国家广播公司预计会接到成千上万的投诉电话和邮件"。然而在这部剧集上映之后,收到的恶意信件却是寥寥无几。原来,大家根本就不在乎。

Exposure to neighborhood violence is especially harmful for children—it has been shown to impair children’s cognitive abilities and academic performance, and potentially contribute to inattentive and compulsive behaviors.102

Other health outcomes are associated with negative characteristics of residential settings including fewer cancer screenings, cardiovascular disease, and the outcomes of violence discussed above. The risk or resilience of a community can directly affect the prevalence of child maltreatment.103

A 2015 review of national and international studies in urban areas found these associations. More research is needed in rural areas to understand if these factors are generalizable:104

  • In the US community unemployment rate, per capita income, poverty rate and educational status were associated with intimate partner violence.
  • Internationally, though lacking representation from Europe or the Middle East, intimate partner violence was associated with community norms, community attitudes towards women, women’s literacy, education, and murder rates. Women’s empowerment is also shown to be protective against IPV.
  • Households with higher proportions of children were also associated with an increased risk of IPV.
  • Community characteristics such as lower collective efficacy, social cohesion, higher perceived neighborhood disorder, and general social disorganization are associated with an increase of IPV. Although crime and violence rates themselves have mixed results with association to IPV, higher levels of perceived violence and worry about violence are associated with IPV.

Discrimination

Racism, sexism, and other forms of discrimination exert a negative influence on mental health in a variety of ways. While experiencing discrimination within a person’s community is deeply stressful in and of itself, discrimination can also place certain groups at a higher risk of other adversities (poverty, segregation, unemployment, violence), which can also negatively impact health. Systematic racism, for example, raises exposure of communities of color to social exclusion and economic adversity, thereby placing them at a higher risk of stress, anxiety and chronic disease.105

Work Stress

Many factors in a person’s workplace can have a negative impact on their mental well-being. Factors such as poor work satisfaction, high demand, low job security, harassment and work disorganization can all cause people to feel substantially stressed while on the job. A 2016 investigation found 43 percent of working adults said their job negatively affects their stress levels. Others said their job negatively affects their eating habits (28 percent), sleeping habits (27 percent) and weight (22 percent).106

Behavioral Responses to Stress

The studio says it has taken the step because the boy declined to remove a YouTube video he published which promoted how to use the software.
凯文·史派西、摩根·弗里曼这样的明星也难逃一劫,被指控性侵演员,积极的网友在网上用标签分享各自的心路历程。
注册人数:424人
9月12日,苹果将在位于库比蒂诺(Cupertino)的新总部举行产品发布会,届时备受期待的10周年纪念版iPhone预计将会亮相,这款智能手机的显示屏、摄像头和总体设计都会有重大升级。
British schools outperform the French on both new criteria. Warwick Business School, the top UK school for career progress, is second overall for the criterion, 30 places above the first French school, HEC Paris. Alumni from UK schools also see a higher increase between their first salary after graduation and now, at 62 per cent versus 45 per cent. However, UK school alumni still have a lower salary on average than their counterparts who studied in France, at $55,000 versus $64,000.
来自中国、日本、美国、德国、葡萄牙和伊朗等国的1300名选手设计制造了各自的足球机器人。在比赛中,一队里有五名机器人,它们依靠事先设定的程序自主运动,而不能受场外人员操控。
注册营养师艾利克斯?图鲁夫称:“糖屑中含有糖分,而金片与此不同,它不含碳水化合物、脂肪或蛋白质,所以不能提供热量,没有味道,主要用于装饰。”
节目40 歌曲《难忘今宵》李谷一 张英席 白丽莎(孔子学院学员)、茹丝(孔子学院学员)、李天翼(孔子学院学员)、吴孟天(在华留学生)
请尊重一下那些支持你的人以及节目主持人,能在访谈开始前把口香糖吐了吗?
Whenever I talk to people about the future, I'm struck by their belief that it is knowable. The impression I get is that most people imagine the future like a book ending: already written and readable if you can just steal a quick look at the last few pages. What they find difficult is accepting that the pages aren't written yet. The future hasn't happened, hasn't even been planned--and cannot be known because it doesn't exist.

Stress and Addiction

substances often abused

 

建材家居行业破产危言背后的转型升级

Stress a powerful risk factor for both developing an addiction and relapsing back into addiction.107 Stress affects the reward pathways of the brain, those same pathways involved in stress, in ways that make people especially prone to become addicted to substances such as nicotine, alcohol and drugs.108

Health-supporting Mechanisms

CDC offers healthy ways to cope with stress:109

  • Take a break, even a short one
  • Breathe deeply
  • Exercise
  • Visualize
  • Scan your body for tension
  • Talk to someone
  • Focus on the here and now
  • 劳瑞斯蒂尔
  • Cut out the caffeine
  • Face the problem

What we know about stress and addiction:110

  • 销量高峰每日售票量约1500万张,每秒售出近700张车票。
  • 四巨头联手48亿造“光都” LED产品将会更加便宜
  • 美国品牌如Chipotle、德克萨斯仪器公司和通用动力第一次出现在了该榜单上。
  • 刘洪玉:未来房地产对经济增长作用将会减弱
  • The Microsoft founder's net worth is $86 billion, up from $75 billion last year.

One reason stress is a such a risk factor for substance abuse is that substance abuse can temporarily reduce anxiety caused by stressful events. As stress levels become chronic, the body responds with dysregulated hormonal states and stress-related behaviors that can produce anxiety. This predisposes an individual to seek substances that temporarily alleviate this stress-induced physical state. After the 9/11 terrorist event in the US, researchers noted a corresponding increase in the sales of various street drugs.111

Those who drink alcohol report that doing so makes them feel relaxed and less stressed. However, using alcohol as a coping mechanism for stress, especially on a regular basis, increases alcohol's harm to the body.

Stress and Antisocial or Violent Behavior

Stressors early in life are heavily associated with aggressive tendencies later in adulthood.112 Universally, childhood maltreatment is a risk factor for conduct disorders, antisocial personality symptoms, and becoming a violent offender. Research has found that abused boys experiencing erratic, coercive and punitive parenting were most at risk of antisocial behaviors later in adulthood, with the earlier the experience the more likely the negative behaviors were. Early child abuse doubles the risk a person will engage in criminal activities later in life.113

Environments That Break the Cycle of Violence114

  • Securing a stable environment
  • 海南:房屋销售和投资增速大幅回落
  • Psychotherapy
  • Promoting positive parenting
  • 我判断摆烂不是看言论而是看球队动作的。所以,即使球队说他们没有摆烂,但是签了一大批落选的自由球员,同时报告明星球员伤病缠身,这时候你就知道,他们是在摆烂了。
  • Seoul insists the activists have a democratic right to send the leaflets, but has appealed for restraint to avoid overly provoking the North.

This "cycle of violence" describes the association between experiencing violence during childhood and the increased risk of either becoming violent or being a victim of violence. Although the majority of maltreated do not grow up to abuse others, we do know that one in six maltreated children becomes a violent offender and one in eight sexually abused boys becomes a sex offender.115 Victims of childhood abuse are at an increased risk of abusing their own children. Researchers also have found that up to one in seven children who experienced maltreatment in childhood also experienced abuse by their spouse. Violent experiences can be collective (gang membership), self-directed (harming oneself) or interpersonal (by a parent or other).116


This page's content was created by Lorelei Walker, PhD, and Nancy Hepp, and last revised in September 2016.

CHE invites our partners to submit corrections and clarifications to this page. Please include links to research to support your submissions through the comment form on our Contact page.

北京顺义首个老旧小区 加装电梯工程开工

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