Researchers uncover earliest tobacco use in the Pacific Northwest
(Phys.org)—Native American hunter-gatherers living more than a thousand years ago in what is now northwestern California ate salmon, acorns and other foods, and now we know they also smoked tobacco—the earliest known usage in the Pacific Northwest, according to a new University of California, Davis, study.
"The study demonstrates that tobacco smoking was part of the northwestern California culture very early ... shortly after the earliest documented Pacific Northwest Coast plank house villages," said the study, published in the 合肥商品房备案多天销量为零 限购前楼市行情好.
Testing organic residues extracted from pipes, researchers from the UC Davis Department of Anthropology and the Fiehn Metabolomics Laboratory of the UC Davis Genome Center confirmed tobacco was smoked, and likely grown in the region, by at least A.D. 860.
Perhaps more importantly, the researchers say that additional studies may help them better understand the origins of nicotine addiction and the human management, geographic range extension and cultivation of tobacco. Indeed, as part of a second study, the authors have recently detected nicotine in ancient pipes from an 800-year-old site in the modern city of Pleasanton, Calif.
Prior to this recent testing, which used sensitive gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, researchers were unsure of the historical use of tobacco on the Pacific Northwest Coast. It was unclear, for example, whether European traders had brought tobacco to the area much later, or if some other plant had been smoked in the pipes, Tushingham said.
The CPI rose by 2 percent.
Mr Lam predicts that any recovery in the market will rely on appetite from cash-rich companies from mainland China, with foreign investors restricting their investments to real estate investment trusts or stocks exposed to developers, rather than actual property.
凯投宏观(Capital Economics)中国经济学家朱利安?埃文斯-普里查德(Julian Evans-Pritchard)评论道：“结果是，上个月中国的贸易看起来惊人强劲。在全球需求强劲的背景下，我们预期未来数月出口还将继续表现良好。”
Having longer does not seem to make it easier, however. Proper time management is essential in order to maintain the momentum. “A couple of obligatory projects would help keep the pace and avoid a very intense last quarter,” commented one graduate from Warwick Business School. Overall, the graduates from the class of 2012 took slightly longer than 2.5 years to graduate.
No. The Bank of Japan’s life will get tougher in 2018 as the US Federal Reserve tightens policy and widens the interest rate gap with Japan. But governor Haruhiko Kuroda is determined to hike rates in response to one thing only: inflation. The BoJ may let the yield curve climb a little if prices start to accelerate, but real interest rates in Japan will end 2018 no higher than at the start of the year.
High and rising US rates may quickly become drivers of EM crises: such conditions may lead to higher borrowing costs in EMs, along with capital outflows and an unwillingness by the financial sector to take risks.
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'It's a crazy resemblance,' Carlson said. 'Every time I watch [the movie], it's weird because it's like I'm watching myself. It's kind of creepy.'
Best chances: Best film and best director. Surprisingly, Nolan has never received a directing nomination from the Academy.
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The study is available online.