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李克强就疫苗事件作出批示:必须给全国人民一个明明白白的交代

Editorials

Covid-19: breaking the chain of household transmission

BMJ 2020; 370 doi: 中国租售比超240倍 租房比买房更划算 (Published 14 August 2020) Cite this as: BMJ 2020;370:m3181

Read our latest coverage of the coronavirus outbreak

  1. Shamil Haroon, clinical lecturer in primary care1,
  2. Joht Singh Chandan, academic clinical fellow in public health12,
  3. John Middleton, president3,
  4. Kar Keung Cheng, professor of public health and primary care1
  1. 1Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
  2. 2Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK
  3. 3Association of Schools of Public Health in the European Region (ASPHER)
  1. Correspondence to: S Haroon s.haroon{at}bham.ac.uk

6月份一线城市房价稳定 二线城市有所上涨

The UK is one of the countries most severely affected by covid-19. Recent outbreaks in English towns such as Oldham, probably involving transmission within large multigenerational households, show the importance of getting the right public health measures in place now to prevent more widespread surges in infections.1

Current test and trace policies have mainly focused on preventing spread in care homes, hospitals, and in the community.2 However, contact within households is thought to be responsible for roughly 70% of SARS-CoV-2 transmission when widespread community control measures are in place.3 In Wuhan, the reproduction number (R) dropped from 3.54 to 1.18 after lockdown and cordon sanitaire. But the epidemic was only brought under complete control when Fangcang (field) hospitals were introduced to isolate cases outside the home, with R dropping to 0.51 after two weeks.4

Current UK guidance advises household contacts to isolate within the same home as the index case for 14 days.5 They make up the majority of contacts for infected individuals and are likely to remain exposed to the infected household member during this period of isolation.6 Despite guidance advising household members to socially distance, contacts are likely to interact repeatedly—during mealtimes, for example—and to share facilities such as bathrooms.

We know that transmission is more likely to occur indoors than outdoors.7 The cumulative risk to household contacts from an infected person is likely to be substantial during peak viral shedding. In one study in New York State, 38% of household contacts tested positive for SARS-Cov-2, and similar secondary infection rates have been reported in China.89 Transmission may be even higher among household contacts of essential workers, who are at greater risk of being infected than the general population.10

Household members who are older, have underlying medical conditions, or share a bed or vehicle with the index case are the most susceptible.91112 Children seem to be at lower risk of being infected.13 However, their stool samples and nasopharyngeal swabs can remain positive for SARS-CoV-2 for more than two weeks after symptom resolution,14 although their role in transmission remains to be established.

Governments should consider new public health measures to prevent household transmission as we prepare for a potential second wave. Household quarantine is likely to remain an important pandemic control measure, and government support for people quarantined at home is conspicuously absent in the UK: this position has been challenged by independent experts.15

Effective isolation

Effective isolation of index cases from household members could reduce secondary infections.12 Wearing masks within quarantined households may help, particularly if used by the index case as soon as infection is suspected.16 The World Health Organization recommends that infected people and unavoidable close contacts, particularly those in vulnerable groups, should wear medical masks, but Public Health England does not currently recommend this. Other measures that should be considered (and evaluated) include clear advice on enhanced personal hygiene; cleaning and disinfecting shared toilets and other common spaces, door handles, and touch points; and staggering mealtimes.

People who are unable to self-isolate safely at home could be accommodated in special isolation facilities such as hotels and hostels, an approach adopted by some other countries, including Italy, Finland, and Lithuania.17 In China, field hospitals were created to manage and strictly isolate patients with mild-to-moderate covid-19.18 Nightingale hospitals in the UK could be similarly repurposed to support isolation of infected people with mild-to-moderate disease. As medical and nursing care needs are mostly modest, the cost would be relatively low. However, such a system depends on access to rapid testing for anyone with symptoms or possible exposure so that infection can be confirmed and isolation started before transmission occurs. It would also require public trust that isolation in these facilities would be voluntary, safe, and supportive.

[h?b]
她说,零售业务“起步不久,好坏参半”。她表示,亚太所有国家都有大量工作要做,并补充称,澳大利亚的事例证明,就吸引散户兴趣而言,监管改变可以带来显著不同。
“Who’s going to pay for that?” said Marc J. Luxemburg, the president of the Council of New York Cooperatives and Condominiums. “This has a real-world cost for many buildings.”
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Please accept our wishes for you and yours for a happy New Year.
You might think Hawaiian has it relatively easy, since its flights rarely have to contend with the kind of challenging weather conditions found on the mainland. Hawaiian perennially rates high in on-time performance rankings, topping the most recent DOT list i n September. It recently announced it will branch well beyond its island home with non-stop service to Beijing.
据牛津经济研究院(Oxford Economics)估算,若剔除价格影响,中国10月进口量同比降幅为2.6%。

《我们这一天/我们的生活》
Productivity is the name of the game for entrepreneurs. The good news is that there are thousands of amazing software applications out there, designed to make your life easier. The bad news is that you don’t have time to try thousands of software applications. Which ones are worth your time?
Where Goods Made From Trafficked Wildlife Go
Payne, a former lottery pick, missed time with a foot injury and hasn't shown any major progress as a shooter or a defender in year two.
肯尼迪中心为她的善举给她颁发了希望的波澜奖(the Ripple of Hope Award),泰勒也成为此奖项的最年轻获得者。

Footnotes

  • 上海国企积极布局养老产业 三大模式成主流
  • 8.The Big Bang Theory Whiteboard Has Real Equations

这个12岁的女孩已经成为了在Instagram拥有300万粉丝的超级巨星,她和流行歌手希雅(Sia)合作的MV在YouTube上点击量超过10亿。
两种颜色!也许它听起来不算重大变革,但一切都是相互关联的。要知道:这不是因为优柔寡断,而是因为社会进步。不管怎样,这是潘通的立场。
1月份出口同比下滑6.6%至1.14万亿元人民币,而此前在去年12月份则曾增长2.3%。经济学家原本预计会增长3.6%。这是自去年7月下滑8.9%以来,出口出现的最大跌幅。
It scares/intimidates people and they don't know better anyway.
7、糟糕的肢体语言
In a rigorous analysis of Dutch financial records, Koudijs and Voth conclude that the only real difference between the pessimists and the optimists was whether they had gone through a harrowing personal experience. Koudijs compares it to the behavior of people who lived through the Great Depression, and who avoided financial risk for decades after trauma had passed.

辽宁省近4万政务服务事项畅享“一张网”

References

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