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变革曙光已现:价值地产明确行业转型方向

Editorials

Covid-19: breaking the chain of household transmission

BMJ 2020; 370 doi: 不动产登记信息全国联网 业内:有助于后续调控的精准落实 (Published 14 August 2020) Cite this as: BMJ 2020;370:m3181

Read our latest coverage of the coronavirus outbreak

  1. Shamil Haroon, clinical lecturer in primary care1,
  2. Joht Singh Chandan, academic clinical fellow in public health12,
  3. John Middleton, president3,
  4. Kar Keung Cheng, professor of public health and primary care1
  1. 1Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
  2. 2Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK
  3. 3Association of Schools of Public Health in the European Region (ASPHER)
  1. Correspondence to: S Haroon s.haroon{at}bham.ac.uk

供需活跃 50城土地储备连涨12个月

The UK is one of the countries most severely affected by covid-19. Recent outbreaks in English towns such as Oldham, probably involving transmission within large multigenerational households, show the importance of getting the right public health measures in place now to prevent more widespread surges in infections.1

Current test and trace policies have mainly focused on preventing spread in care homes, hospitals, and in the community.2 However, contact within households is thought to be responsible for roughly 70% of SARS-CoV-2 transmission when widespread community control measures are in place.3 In Wuhan, the reproduction number (R) dropped from 3.54 to 1.18 after lockdown and cordon sanitaire. But the epidemic was only brought under complete control when Fangcang (field) hospitals were introduced to isolate cases outside the home, with R dropping to 0.51 after two weeks.4

Current UK guidance advises household contacts to isolate within the same home as the index case for 14 days.5 They make up the majority of contacts for infected individuals and are likely to remain exposed to the infected household member during this period of isolation.6 Despite guidance advising household members to socially distance, contacts are likely to interact repeatedly—during mealtimes, for example—and to share facilities such as bathrooms.

We know that transmission is more likely to occur indoors than outdoors.7 The cumulative risk to household contacts from an infected person is likely to be substantial during peak viral shedding. In one study in New York State, 38% of household contacts tested positive for SARS-Cov-2, and similar secondary infection rates have been reported in China.89 Transmission may be even higher among household contacts of essential workers, who are at greater risk of being infected than the general population.10

Household members who are older, have underlying medical conditions, or share a bed or vehicle with the index case are the most susceptible.91112 Children seem to be at lower risk of being infected.13 However, their stool samples and nasopharyngeal swabs can remain positive for SARS-CoV-2 for more than two weeks after symptom resolution,14 although their role in transmission remains to be established.

Governments should consider new public health measures to prevent household transmission as we prepare for a potential second wave. Household quarantine is likely to remain an important pandemic control measure, and government support for people quarantined at home is conspicuously absent in the UK: this position has been challenged by independent experts.15

Effective isolation

Effective isolation of index cases from household members could reduce secondary infections.12 Wearing masks within quarantined households may help, particularly if used by the index case as soon as infection is suspected.16 The World Health Organization recommends that infected people and unavoidable close contacts, particularly those in vulnerable groups, should wear medical masks, but Public Health England does not currently recommend this. Other measures that should be considered (and evaluated) include clear advice on enhanced personal hygiene; cleaning and disinfecting shared toilets and other common spaces, door handles, and touch points; and staggering mealtimes.

People who are unable to self-isolate safely at home could be accommodated in special isolation facilities such as hotels and hostels, an approach adopted by some other countries, including Italy, Finland, and Lithuania.17 In China, field hospitals were created to manage and strictly isolate patients with mild-to-moderate covid-19.18 Nightingale hospitals in the UK could be similarly repurposed to support isolation of infected people with mild-to-moderate disease. As medical and nursing care needs are mostly modest, the cost would be relatively low. However, such a system depends on access to rapid testing for anyone with symptoms or possible exposure so that infection can be confirmed and isolation started before transmission occurs. It would also require public trust that isolation in these facilities would be voluntary, safe, and supportive.

There were multiple instances of the glamourous royalty keeping Canadians waiting, including the arrival, where the family took a whole 20 minutes to disembark in order to be greeted by the Canadian welcome party.
中国国家统计局(NBS)数据显示,今年10月中国工业生产者出厂价格指数(PPI)同比上涨1.2%,这是该指数连续第二个月同比上涨,此前53个月的下跌最终是在今年9月画上句号的。
In contrast, the nation witnessed a tumbling trend for minivans, whose volume totaled 71,300 units, a 31 percent drop year-on-year.
1Switzerland
平均工作经验:12个月
节目14 歌曲《报喜》,陈慧琳
This was the biggest monthly drop in imports since last September and also means shipments have contracted year-on-year for the past 15 months straight.

平均工作经验:11年
《楚乔传》
Ben McLannahan is US banking editor
Kobe Bryant
迁移工程也是京津冀一体化计划的一部分,其目的在于缓解首都交通拥挤,为地区提供更加均衡的发展。

Footnotes

  • 家具品牌发力床垫市场 满足一站式购物
  • 谎言5:你穿这条裙子真好看。说谎原因:总比说真话被别人扇耳光要好吧。

郭晶晶与霍启刚(香港近代富豪霍英东的孙子)的秘密恋情已经引起了全民的想象,人们似乎在关注运动员赛场表现之余,也愈加关心起他们的私人生活了。
4.统计学家
公众宗教研究机构与宗教新闻通讯社联合开展的这项调查显示,不同政治派别和不同宗教信仰的人们对于恶劣天气的观念存在分歧,今年已经发生了多起严重的高温和干旱灾害。
201212/212620.shtmlChina won the Robot World Cup Soccer 2013 against the Netherlands in a thrilling match that resulted in a 2-3 win for China.The Robot World Cup Soccer was held in Eindhoven, the Netherlands, which defended its Robot World Cup title of last year.
In contrast to last year when the vast majority of economists expected the ECB to launch full-scale quantitative easing, just under half of the 33 respondents thought the ECB would do nothing this year. The rest said the ECB would expand QE or cut interest rates, although some of those who expected more easing stressed that the central bank was unlikely to radically reshape its existing policy response.
在经历了艰辛的法律诉讼之后,凯莎发表的一切都会给人一种胜利的假象。但这张回归专辑用艺术反映了一位勇士的呐喊,并带来了比所有人期望中更为强大的影响力。

经济观察:多项指标小幅回升 4月中国楼市企稳

References

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